Over the last two decades, Russia fought wars to hold onto Chechnya. Are the underlying issues still present, and should we expect still more conflict?
The North Caucasus in general is becoming more unstable and very worryingly so. Twenty years of war and neglect and mismanagement of federal forces have created a situation in which there is a very serious problem of a terrorist insurgency, loosely organized if organized at all, but which is no longer seeking independence for Chechnya, but – if it's seeking anything – wants to establish an Islamic dominion across the North Caucasus. There doesn't seem to be very much that Moscow, even under the most enlightened leadership, could do. It's likely to remain this terrible problem which will continue to produce terrorist attacks, both in the North Caucuses and in Moscow and Central Russia.